STEM experts tend to focus on narrower and narrower slices of their areas of expertise while arts and humanities experts often focus on broad challenges facing humanity. I chose to frame the arts more widely to include the humanities, and asked the attendees: How do we identify the challenges we wish to work on? Morris, M. A. Their chosen field of study, or hopefully multiple fields of study, should expand both their academic knowledge and understanding of who they are as a person. While regression analysis is a powerful tool to examine whether a variable predicts the outcome, it does not inform us about the relative contribution of a variable in predicting the outcome compared to the other variables in the model. doi: 10.1177/1094428104266510. Multiple regression was used to examine the influence of major choice and interest fit on each well-being outcome, while controlling for demographic and individual characteristics. 57, 137–187. Today’s classrooms seldom foster true self-discovery, or encourage broad intellectual inquiry, or adequately prepare students for a world beyond pearly white campus gates. 7, 384–403. Perspect. The Stanford Humanities Center (2017) also asserts that “through exploration of the humanities, we learn how to think creatively and critically, to reason, and to ask questions.” In doing so, they also rely on recent studies indicating that the majority of hiring managers believe candidates' soft skills (e.g., communication skills, critical thinking, and intercultural skills), which are considered inherent in a humanities education at the highest level, are more important than their major (Association of American Colleges and Universities, 2013) and as important as their technical skills (Bentley University, 2014). Career Assess. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2005.11.003, Tizon, C. (2013). Meta-analysis of the relationship between congruence and well-being measures. J. Vocat. A., and Jehn, K. A. A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Vocational Interest-Based Job Fit, and Its Relationship to Job Satisfaction, Performance, and Turnover. 57, 11–22. Sci. While personal income is positively linked to emotional and cognitive well-being, research has shown that there is satiation point, beyond which limited gain or even lower life evaluation is reported (Jebb et al., 2018). Parents and academic counselors encouraged STEM studies as they thought it increased the likelihood of their children and students getting jobs after graduation, especially in wake of the recession. The results of the regression analysis (Table 2) suggested that even after controlling for cognitive ability and ability/motivation, perception of interest fit was a significant predictor of work satisfaction (b = 0.53, p < 0.001), life satisfaction (b = 0.35, p < 0.001), and financial satisfaction (b = 0.07, p < 0.05), but not personal income (b = 0.05, p > 0.05). Particularly, Study 2 utilizes a sample of recent college graduates from a large Midwestern university, which is a heavily STEM-focused institution. Matt Bevin wants state colleges and universities to produce more electrical engineers and less french literature scholars. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Bellwether institutions such as Harvard have also noted the decline in the number of undergraduate humanities majors — the percentage fell there from about 24% in 1964 to 17% in 2012. We inspected various residual plots to examine the assumptions of multiple regression, including normality, homoscedasticity, no autocorrelation of residuals, and no multicollinearity among predictors. Janitors? Well-being metrics expand our notions of societal progress beyond economic outcomes and reflect additional valued qualities such as psychological health, participation in democracy, and respect for human rights (Diener and Seligman, 2004; Helliwell et al., 2015). Available online at: https://www.humanitiescommission.org/_pdf/Hum_Report_Card.pdf (accessed October 17, 2017). While we expect that major field to be a stronger predictor of personal income, we expect perception of interest fit to be more important with regard to other well-being outcomes (namely, work satisfaction, life satisfaction, and financial satisfaction). Interest congruence and performance: revisiting recent meta-analytic findings. Such a proposal is in line with past career theories (e.g., Holland's theory of career choice), suggesting that the fit between the individual's values, interests, and abilities and his/her career is a major determinant of success and satisfaction (Campbell and Holland, 1972; Spokane et al., 2000; Nauta, 2010). In view of this, our goal is to examine how the fit between personal interests and job compares with STEM or the humanities educational track in explaining a variety of well-being and economic outcomes. Humanities traditionally include disciplines such as history, languages, literature, philosophy, classical studies, religion, art, law, politics and human geography. What matters is what they learn, and how they learn, throughout the educational process. In one corner of this academic boxing ring stands STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Humanities perspective is needed in all global challenges The second conviction around which the debate swirls is that the world desperately needs the insights of the humanities. The nature and power of interests. Accordingly, future research is needed to further our understanding of why STEM majors may sustain more detrimental outcomes when there is a lack of fit. 30, 207–216. Empirical studies also suggest that the congruence or fit between individuals' interests, and their environment not only relates to higher levels of performance, persistence, and career success (Terence and Robbins, 2006; Nye et al., 2012, 2017; Rounds and Su, 2014) but also results in better well-being outcomes for individuals (Assouline and Meir, 1987; Tsabari et al., 2005). In line with this research, our results point to the important role of the match between individuals' interests and their career to their future well-being. Parents and academic counselors encouraged STEM studies as they thought it increased the likelihood of Campbell, D. P., and Holland, J. L. (1972). and Political Science hold that STEM degrees do not. With rapid technological and scientific advances and a growing demand for modernization, a stronger emphasis has been placed on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors and careers. Our results suggest that while majoring in STEM fields may result in slightly higher levels of personal income, the perception of fit between individual's interests and his/her job also plays a significant role in personal income and a more important role in their well-being. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine a person-centric approach in occupational choice rather than a top-down unilateral channeling of individuals into these fields. A rising call to promote STEM education and cut liberal arts funding. It may be the case that individuals' interests may shift as they continue to work in a particular setting. In the opposing corner, weighing in at 373,507 U.S. graduates in 2016, humanities are fast falling from their fan-favorite pedestal. “STEAM” represents STEM plus the arts – humanities, language arts, dance, drama, music, visual arts, design and new media. This gives way to an even larger, generational dilemma. As with any study, our research has some limitations that should be considered. Speaking to the interdependent nature between STEM and humanities, Turner continues, saying, “I don’t believe we can understand the humanities without understanding something about human biology. A meta-analysis of the relationship between interest-based job fit and job satisfaction also suggests that perception of fit is more strongly related to satisfaction with supervisor, coworkers and work in general compared to satisfaction with pay and promotion (Morris, 2003). doi: 10.1006/jvbe.2000.1771, Stanford Humanities Center (2017). These fields were then coded based on whether they were humanities or STEM. As such, we hypothesize that: Hypothesis 1: Educational track is a more important predictor of personal income than interest fit. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2016.11.002. The educational system has pushed scads of STEM programs, in elementary schools and even earlier. The past ten years has seen dramatic shifts in the majors of college graduates. I am a … Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), previously science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), is a broad term used to group together these academic disciplines. Humanities Indicators (2017). J. Vocat. Meir, E. I. Why we still need to study the humanities in a STEM world (iStock) By Valerie Strauss Valerie Strauss Reporter covering education, foreign affairs … In the 1960s, Alan Ginsberg bemoaned what he saw as the dominant culture oppressing artistic creativity. In 2015, 74% of all students studying engineering, manufacturing and construction related subjects were male. “It’s a placeholder for ‘my kid is a smart kid.’ The danger is in the parents of kids at elite universities who really think their kids just have to zero in on that science.”. Science 326, 1410–1412. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The implications of radically favoring STEM and discouraging humanities is detrimental both to society and individual students. Universities can stop paying mere lip service to interdisciplinary studies by arranging academic programs that allow students to take classes outside of their major, without major implications for graduation requirements or financial burdens. The development, evolution, and status of holland's theory of vocational personalities: reflections and future directions for counseling psychology. Accordingly, longitudinal research is needed to better understand how interest fit during college would affect future well-being outcomes. Participants were on average male (58%), Caucasian (91%), and married (68%). Happiness, income satiation and turning points around the world. In addition, interest fit accounted for significantly more variance in work satisfaction and life satisfaction, compared to the major field. Students in these disciplines would benefit to know their origins, development and religious implications. Inside Higher Ed. Rev. First, the data used in this research is single-source and cross-sectional in nature, which limits our ability to draw causal conclusions. Kentucky Gov. They remain underrepresented in engineering Furthermore, past research has not examined the differential effect of fit perceptions across majors. My experience was that STEM majors took far more English / History / Sociology / etc. The Prepared U Project: An in-Depth Look at Millennial Preparedness for Today's Workforce. (1989). STEM Attrition: College Students’ Paths Into and Out of STEM Fields Statistical Analysis Report NOVEMBER 2013 Xianglei Chen RTI International Matthew Soldner Project Officer National Center for Education Statistics NCES 2014-001 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Public Interest 5, 1–31. Inspire our creativity? Association of American Colleges Universities (2013). STEM provides job specific training but, in isolation, fails to offer a broad foundation for further career development, leaving students at risk when jobs in their designated STEM fields are unavailable — which is a looming possibility. Some studies indicate that universities are now graduating more STEM majors than there are STEM occupations available. 37, 522–553. Front. Humanities centers and institutes are key to improving the image of the humanities among the public and policy makers, writes Aaron R. Hanlon. Multiple regression is appropriate for this study as it examines whether a set of independent variables significantly predicts the outcome of interest. Behav. Despite a growing number of studies demonstrating the importance of fit between interests and major/career, an increasing discordant rhetoric can be heard emphasizing either STEM or the humanities in education and work. Foster our language? 26, 179–201. J. Acad. RWA decomposes the predicted variance in a regression model into weights that indicate the relative contribution of the predictor variables. Psychol. doi: 10.1007/s10869-014-9351-z, Tsabari, O., Tziner, A., and Meir, E. I. Pythagoras, whom you can thank for the Pythagorean Theorem of right triangles, founded a religious brotherhood whose studies included the metaphysics of numbers, music, astronomy and even the nature of souls. While the nature of the constructs included in our study (e.g., well-being outcomes) require self-reports, future research should incorporate others-reported measures in addition to self-reports to further validate our results. At the same time, I don’t believe we have any systematic way of imagining or hypothesizing other than the humanities.”. Psychol. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Behav. U.S. News. 2, 33–38. For example, an RS-RW of 50% means that the predictor accounts for 50% of the explained variance in the outcome. HV and SP analyzed the data. Nauta, M. M. (2010). (2015). The years following the Great Recession only heightened this rhetoric of divergence. Keywords and phrases: STEM, humanities, liberal arts, education, incentives, budget cuts, education majors iv Table of Contents 1. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. The opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of Templeton Religion Trust. J. In response, arts and humanities institutions are reacting to these trends by highlighting the values of the arts and humanities to societies and for individuals. Providing equal or comparable funding and marketing for both STEM and humanities is an imperative component of fostering academic freedom and integration. University of Houston. No significant interaction between interest fit and the major field was found. Integrative elaboration of the congruence theory. Society artificially designed the feud, meaning student must not let the STEM versus humanities fight influence their academic path. However, research also suggests that income is not linearly related to well-being indices such as emotional well-being and that there is a satiation point, after which limited gain or even lower evaluation is observed (Jebb et al., 2018). (2016, January 29). Humanities, those branches of knowledge that concern themselves with human beings and their culture or with analytic and critical methods of inquiry derived from an appreciation of human values and of the unique ability of the human spirit to express itself. But he also mastered Latin, dove into the mechanical philosophy of French philosopher René Descartes and even devoted his later years to interpretation of religious prophecies. Furthermore, individuals may craft their jobs (either cognitively or behaviorally) so that it fits better with their interests (Wrzesniewski and Dutton, 2001). Acad. While there has been a growing desire to channel and groom more young individuals to move into STEM careers, proponents of the humanities have challenged this idea. A growing number of elected officials are also advocating for the elimination of state funding for students majoring in humanities (Kiley, 2013; Beam, 2016; Cohen, 2016). Burning Glass Technologies. This list of humanities majors with successful careers, both within and beyond what they studied, is endless. 23, 98–103. Despite a rich, ancient history attesting to the intimately connected nature of these disciplines, society slowly began cleaving them from one another, often claiming practical superiority of STEM. Indicator 26: STEM Degrees (Last Updated: February 2019) Overall, a higher percentage of bachelor’s degrees were awarded to females than to males in 2015–16 (58 vs. 42 percent). Research with a more diverse sample can establish the generalizability of these results. First, the effect size was very small, and the result was not replicated in Study 2. 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The same is true of STEM and humanities — with only mathematicians and engineers, who will record our history? Between 2009 and 2015, the number of STEM major in bachelors-and-above programs grew by 43%, while humanities declined negative 0.4%. Thi… “The opportunity to become better able to understand and grapple with complex moral issues, the complexities and intricacies of humanity.”. Dir. Though an understandable sentiment, it is unfortunately not completely accurate. doi: 10.1177/0963721414522812, Spokane, A. R., Meir, E. I., and Catalano, M. (2000). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. She aims to do just that while staying true to the specific purpose of STEM education. 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